Posts Tagged ‘Co2 Emissions’
Vision Shopsters: Carbon Management in Emerging Economies:New mechanisms for managing carbon dioxide emissions
Carbon management is now a major focus of environmental initiatives. Although carbon dioxide is not the only greenhouse gas, it is the most common and therefore at the centre of attempts to reduce the rate of growth of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and eventually to cause these emissions to fall.
Carbon management is a controversial area, involving politicians, public servants, social and physical scientists, activists, businesses and many others. The controversies include:
– Whether carbon dioxide is a cause or a consequence of global warming or both
– Whether global warming is a fact – depending on the time period analysed
– Whether particular initiatives or mechanisms for carbon reduction (such as carbon trading) work (whether scientifically, technologically or in terms of incentives)
– Whether they have desirable or undesirable other consequences,
This report abstracts from these and other controversies. It focuses on the extent to which emerging economies are involved in innovative and/or leading edge practices in carbon management. So it focuses on questions such as whether a particular initiative works to reduce carbon emissions, whether it has known or suspected adverse consequences in other areas, whether environmental, economic or other; whether the approach to funding it creates problems; whether the initiative may lead to diversion of energy from other initiatives; and whether the initiatives taken together are in some sense enough for the emerging economy in question.
Key features of this report
• A review of the principles of carbon management
• An examination of carbon trading and the working of carbon markets
• Comprehensive and up-to-date data on CO2 emissions for emerging nations, broken out by fuel type
• Insights on the principlal initiatives taken by nation to reduce CO2 emissions
• Examination of the key technology introductions and innovations.
• Implications for the future
Scope of this report
• Achieve a quick and comprehensive understanding of the various options and models available for reducing carbon emissions
• Definitive source work, including the most up to date data on carbon emissions by emerging nation
• An overview of trends and initiatives in reduction of carbon emissions, both worldwide and by emerging nation
• Comparison of initiatives by nation: which countries are making the greatest progress in dealing with carbon emissions; which are struggling
Key Market Issues
• Core Issue: Different paths to managing CO2 emissions require different degrees of participation by industry, consumers and governments. The future of carbon management is still uncertain, due to lack of international consensus on how best to manage efficiency and equity issues, and the lack of consensus about the continuation of global warming.
• Alternative approaches: Various initiatives are used to greater or lesser extent, including:
– Improved carbon management
– The Clean Development Mechanism: an important stimulus for carbon reduction initiatives, but high cost and bureaucratic
– Carbon trading: the cap and trade approach depends for its success on realistic caps
– Taxation, subsidies and regulation
• Approaches vary by location: Most African countries have low carbon emissions. A few – Libya, Algeria, Nigeria and Ghana – have significant oil reserves, and so tend to focus their carbon management on reduction of flaring and other oil and gas-related projects. Access to energy is Africa’s main problem.
Key findings from this report
– The carbon management situation in emerging economies has produced a mixed picture, with two giants – China and India – focused on carbon management, making significant improvements in some area, but with some substantial gaps.
– The carbon market looks like it will continue to grow very rapidly, once the recession is over, leading to greatly increased demand for auditing capability – and a risk that there will be a worldwide shortage the of the skills needed to audit carbon savings.
– The bureaucracy of carbon management is still posing significant problems, even though some progress is being made with reducing validation times for carbon investments.
– In the CDM, there is tension between the “cleanness”, which leads to carbon saving, credits and money for the emerging economies, and “development”, the much wider objective that all emerging economies have adopted.
Key questions answered
– What are the key issues affecting different approaches to carbon reduction?
– How are various emerging economies adapting to the demands of carbon reduction?
– What are the key trends in carbon emissions by emerging economy?
– What are the main obstacles to a co-ordinated worldwide approach to carbon reduction?
– How has the perceived failure of Copenhagen impacted on international policy in this area?
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