Posts Tagged ‘Developing Countries’
Most countries particularly the developing ones like Nigeria are faced with the enormous challenges of urban planning problems which in turn affects the economic development. Urban growth for instance has a number of impacts on the environment and human well-being. Apart from the few impacts, almost all major cities of the country are increasingly plagued by environmental problems. In other words, there is a great threat to health and safety in most Nigerian cities (Egunjobi, 2000 and Kessides, 2006) courtesy of unguided urbanization and ineffective planning (Mabogunje, 2001; Ogunsanya, 2002 and Egunjobi, 2000). There are several schools of thoughts and insights into the causal factors, and government’s attempts tame towards alleviating the situation. One of such factors is overlapping of professional practices that greatly affect the functionality of our environment and the society at large. For Instance, in Nigeria, overlapping of professional practice per-se is not the only factor affecting effective functionality of the society.
The paper argued that, much as professional overlaps might be an issue in most developing countries, lack of adequate focus on planning as a profession, and the actions of quacks have contributed significantly to the worsening urban problems. Specifically, this paper espouses on professionalism, and highlights the responsibilities of planning to different segments of the society as it emphasises the need for proficiency among planners through continuous training and re-training programmes, such as seminars, workshops and refreshers courses.It suffices to ask the question as to who is a professional Urban and Regional Planner? What are their responsibilities to sustainable livelihoods and development of a nation? The underlying motivations of this paper relates to the dynamic nature of professionalism as a concept, and the essence of competent practitioners in our society. This is more pertinent as technological revolution is impacting on diverse facets of human endeavour. In addition, geographical zoning has tended to vary the practice of Urban and Regional Planning from nation to nation.
Based on this premise, this paper attempts to contribute to growing academic literatures by discussing who a professional Urban and Regional Planner is in the Nigerian context.
Professional Urban and Regional Planner
Professionalism is an inclusive term covering a variety of activities in different field of study. Oni, (2007), buttressed this point by emphasising the fact that professional activity would encompass a particular level of systematic knowledge and proficiency. Thus, planning education is a systematic process aimed at developing knowledge, skills, and other capabilities within individuals. It includes training and re-training exercise in an institution of higher learning approved by the Ministry of Education and the Town Planners Registration Council of Nigeria (TOPREC). Precisely, a professional Town Planner is identified here as a person who has gained mastery or proficiency in planning and related fields of knowledge and skills; and can effectively help local officials to alleviate social, economic, and environmental problems through delineation for roads paths, schools location and other infrastructure designation; and suggesting zoning regulations for private properties within a locality. The Nigerian Institute of Town Planners views a professional Town Planner as a person who possesses any of the following academic/professional qualifications:(i) A degree in Urban and Regional Planning/Town Planning;(ii)A Professional Diploma in Urban and Regional Planning/Town Planning;(iii)A pass in the final stage of the Nigerian Institute of Town Planners/Town Planners Registration Council Examination;(iv)Attainment of 2 years post qualification supervised experience.It should be noted that, courses leading to the award of the specified qualification (i) and (ii) above must be from any institution recognised and accredited by the Town Planners Registration Council (TOPREC) (NITP, 1991).It can be deduced from the above that, a Master’s Degree from an accredited planning institution provides the best training for a wide range of planning positions.
However, various degrees in urban and regional planning from notable institutions aims to provide planners with ;
(i) A broad understanding of the forces and processes shaping cities, regions and built and natural environment;
(ii)To keep a breast with the physical, economic, social and environmental factors that strongly influence the practice of the profession;
(iii)The knowledge and confidence to question and, where necessary to challenge current planning wisdom, and the creativity to develop alternative planning proposals and;
(iv)To engender in planners the respect and commitment necessary to make effective community consultation and interdisciplinary collaboration crucial to planning practice.
Above all, professional Planners must be able to think in terms of spatial relationships and visualize the effects of their plans and designs. They should also be flexible to reconcile different view points and make constructive policy recommendations. Professional Planners should however be able to communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, as this is necessary and can never be divulge from individuals that are interested in the Urban and Regional Planning profession.Agbola et al (2004) perceived planning as a purposeful action. In other words, it involves taking decisions or making appropriate arrangements before hand to influence the course of action on a particularly developmental need. They went further to explain that, planning consists of making suitable choices among several options which appear open for the future and then advice the concern government on how to deploy necessary resources to implement the adopted alternative. This definition, which is one among several views (Oyesiku, 1998; Adeniji, Egunjobi, 2001) of purposeful planning, show or view planning as;
(i) General approach to decision making;
(ii) A future oriented exercise;
(iii)An activity with many alternatives;
(iv)The choice of one alternative among several others, depending on facts based on past experience, present situation, the anticipated future and the resources (human and materials) available at that point in time and/or expected to be available at the time of implementation (Agbola et al, 2004 and Agbola, 2007).
It is worth mentioning that, the professional Town Planner’s primary responsibility is to serve the public interest. However, the definition of the public interest is formulated through continuous debates; a planner owes allegiance to a conscientiously attained concept of the public interest, which requires special obligations. In actual fact, public interest refers to the common good of society at large. It also entails the “common well-being” or general “welfare”. Accordingly, public interest is central to policy debates and professional practice. Thus professional planners have valuable responsibilities to the public, clients and employers, to the professional and colleagues and planner’s self-responsibility. For effective practice, planners requires the use of theories and techniques of planning (Agola, 2001 and Ayeni, 1998) that informs and structures debate, facilitate communication and foster understanding. Interestingly, professional Planners are expected to:
(i)Practice in a manner that respects the diversity needs, values and aspirations of the public and encourages discussion on these matters;
(ii) Provide full, clear and accurate information on planning matters to decision makers and members of the public;
(iii) Acknowledge the inter-related nature of planning decisions and their consequences for individuals, the natural and built environment, and the broader public interest; and
(iv) Identify and promote opportunities for meaningful participation in the planning process to all interested parties.Apart from the stated responsibilities of professional planners to the public, the vitality and credibility of the planning profession and of the institute are reflective of the quality of the membership. To further the profession, members will be expected to attain and maintain a high standard of professional competence and conduct, which extends to their relationship with other members.They are also expected to encourage healthy and constructive criticism about theory and practice of planning among colleagues and share the results of experience and research output that contribute to the evolving body of planning knowledge.Moreso, maintenance of appropriate awareness of contemporary planning philosophy, theory, and practice by seeking and receiving professional education throughout a planning career. Much discussion in developing countries particularly Nigeria today surrounds the relationship between that section of the society concerned with the development of long- and short-term plans for the use of land and the growth and revitalization of urban, sub-urban and rural communities and the region in which they are located and the world of work.
The discussion has tried to focus on such issues as; the increase in building collapse in cities; rapid urbanization and population growth that create a big challenge for state and municipal governments in terms of infrastructure and services provision.The scale and complexity of the above mentioned facts are intensifying in Nigeria. Building collapse, traffic congestion and accidents, unemployment, urban violence and crime and a host of others are recognised problems in Nigerian cities. They however have dramatic impact on social fabric of cities, threaten the reform process and erode the ability of the poor to build
Marx predicted globalisation of world capital over a century and a half ago. He pointed out that capital had an inherent tendency to expand, to seek areas of higher profit. Once it exhausts opportunities in one particular ‘market,’ it moves on to encompass other markets. Today the dominant view holds that globalisation, or spread of global capital and capitalism to far corners of the world, is inevitable. The process tends to link up the nation-states’ economies into an integrated world economy. But it is a multidimensional phenomenon. It impinges not only on the world economy but also on the environment, public health and culture, indeed almost every facet of life.
However, the economic integration of the world is not accompanied by matching political integration. The process of creation of supranational bodies able to enforce agreed system of rules and laws on all states is, in comparison, slow. The international system remains an anarchic one, composed of nominally sovereign states. The leading advanced capitalist countries seek free movement of capital and goods. The movement of labour continues to be hampered by a plethora of rules, regulations and laws.
The form of capitalism that the advanced, capitalist world, led by its corporate sector, is trying to impose on the rest of the world—in essence, the neoliberal mantra of liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation—is not conducive to the economic development of developing countries such as Pakistan, which are yet to establish a sound infrastructure and industrial base. Besides, it is certain to lead to tensions and conflict in inter-state relations and/or periodic global economic crises. A financial crisis hit the advanced capitalist world in 2008, sooner than expected.
The global crisis notwithstanding, Pakistan’s economic problems are worsening by the day, due to reliance on the neoliberal paradigm, further confounded by its ruling elite’s aimless policies, corruption, lavish lifestyle, resistance to positive change, and lopsided priorities.
Capitalism’s survival and growth depends, in any case, on the patronage and protection of governments. Judicious regulation of the activities of big market players by governments is essential for the system to work, as is clear from the failure of the ‘deregulation’ experiment of the past few decades. Unbridled ‘deregulation’ in accordance with neoliberal thinking, particularly in banking and finance, were bound to lead to problems. That moment arrived in a big way in 2008 when financial systems in the advanced capitalist world faced a meltdown. Capitalism is in its worst crisis since the Great Depression of 1929. The economies of the advanced capitalist world are in particular distress! Economies of those developing countries dependent on exports to those countries are also affected badly. The IMF forecast contraction of the developed world’s economies, and a reduction in the growth rate elsewhere. The creed of market economy, which metamorphosed into greed economy, has received a big jolt. The huge inter-state and intra-state inequality that it promoted is pushing an increasing number of people across the globe below the poverty line. However, an organised effort is being made by governments in the advanced capitalist world to save capitalism. Nevertheless, a contradiction exists in the claims of the proponents of the market, who decry government intervention whilst the going is good, but call upon the government to save the market when things go awry, as they are bound to, from time to time.
Apart from this, the neoliberal paradigm has made the whole edifice topsy-turvy. It emphasises trade and finance, rather than production and manufacturing industry. This amounts to putting the cart before the horse. Trade follows production of goods, and finance has an important role in industry, but auxiliary, not primary. The rigmarole of financial instruments, hedging and risk management devices, not to speak of speculation and non-productive re-shuffling of financial investments that has taken centre-stage during the last few decades of the ascendancy of neoliberalism, has done more harm than good.
Besides, the developing states’ economies have been severely harmed by premature liberalisation and deregulation, mindless privatisation of state entities and strategic assets. The ‘integration’ of their economies with the world economy has been a mixed blessing, good for some countries, devastating for others. The industry of many developing countries—Pakistan, for example—has got stunted as a result of unthinking patronisation of neoliberal policies. Many economists in the developing countries have merely been parroting the neoliberal mantra, and the presumed blessings of ‘globalisation’ under the neoliberal paradigm—without understanding, and in some cases denying outright, its highly detrimental effects. Many of them have allowed their economies to become suppliers of raw materials, low value-added manufactures and low-skill jobs or merely markets for more developed countries. What they really need is to upgrade the skills of their people, establish industry, initially to substitute imports and at a later stage to export higher value-added products. Foreign Direct Investment is a good thing if it serves the needs of their economies, and worse than useless if it promotes the exploitation of their resources without adequate compensation or transfer of technology. What they need is to upgrade the knowledge and skill of their workforce, and open up avenues to utilise that knowledge and skill. The knowledge and skill gap with the developed world must be bridged in the quickest possible time. In this lies their only chance of meaningful survival, which means survival with dignity. Instead, most of them are turning their economies, partly under pressure, partly on the urging of the IFIs and the developed world, into consumption-oriented economies, markets for the industrialised world’s surplus production.
Many things that otherwise would have been perceived merely as claims, have been upheld by events around the world. Here is a crisis of global proportions, in essence a systemic crisis of world capitalism, hastened and aggravated by the misdeeds of greedy ‘investors,’ speculators and middlemen of the financial system, especially in the industrialised world, where the financial systems are the least regulated. In the US, the Congress passed a 0 bailout plan in late 2008 to save the system from collapse.
After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and especially since the terrorist attacks in America in September 2001, the sole superpower has tried to sustain its hegemony through military adventurism. It launched an open-ended ‘war on terror’ and invaded Afghanistan and Iraq. Hundreds of thousands of people have fallen victim to this gigantic folly, to which there is no end in sight. Finally it has contributed to the financial meltdown that we witness today. While the Western governments and media focus on ‘extremists’ and ‘terrorists,’ they do not tell their people that they were promoted by western governments and their surrogates in the Islamic world, during the jihad against the former Soviet Union in Afghanistan. After 9/11, a wrong strategy has only served to keep them in business longer than might otherwise have been the case. They are now fighting against their own creators rather than doing there bidding!
Unfortunately, Pakistani leaders, past and present, cannot escape the blame for helping unbottle the genii—an action that led to the current unenviable situation for Pakistan. Since 1979, almost all Pakistani regimes have gone along with Washington’s strategic aims in the region, with the consequences that we witness today. The ‘war on terror’ has had highly detrimental consequences for its people! It has become an albatross hung around the nation’s neck. The financial costs of this war in FY 2008-2009 were Rs. 678 billion, up from 484 billion the previous year! The much-touted ‘financial assistance’ received from Washington and its allies is not even a fraction of the financial costs of this war. The political and human costs are in addition.
To return to our main subject, the world system theories give a good insight into understanding the contemporary world. Immanuel Wallerstein’s world systems theory analyses the world holistically. It considers ‘historical ‘systems’ in place of what is called ‘society’ in traditional social science. Systems are classified on the basis of economic production relations. Today’s system is the capitalist world economy, in which capitalist production relations prevail. In the past there have been other systems, which he names localised ‘mini systems’ of pre-agricultural period and later ‘world empires’ based on the ‘redistributive tributary’ mode of production. In today’s ‘world economy’ both state and non-state actors have a role in determining the course of events. The proper field of discourse that considers all these issues is political economy.
Some political economists divide the approaches to the study of international political economy into three different categories: Realist, Liberal and Marxist. According to Frieden and Lake, these three approaches differ in that they regard, respectively, nation-states, the individual, and classes (in society), as the units of analysis. The proponents of the liberal approach claim that economic relations, both at the international and domestic levels, are essentially harmonious, while the Marxist and the Realist approaches consider them to be conflictual. In the Marxist view, based on dialectic materialism, economics determines politics. Economics divorced from politics has no meaning. In the realist view, politics and power relations determine economics. The liberals regard
PROS AND CONS OF GLOBALISATION
While developing countries which, in the past, were against globalisation, have wide opened their doors for globalisation, many people in developed countries like USA are angry against globalisation. American jobs and wage levels are severely affected by the influx of cheap imports and shifting of production to low cost overseas locations. According to a Business Week/Harris poll in early 2000, more than two-thirds of Americans believe that globalisation drags down U S wages. A strong majority of the Americans feel that trade policies have not adequately addressed the concerns of American workers, international labour standards, or the environment. The important pros and cons of globalisation according to the above survey are the following. Productivity grows more quickly when countries produce goods and services in which they have comparative advantage Living standards can go up faster.
Global competition and imports keep a Hd on prices, so inflation is less likely to derail
economic growth. An open economy spurs innovation with fresh ideas from abroad. Export jobs often pay more than other jobs. Unfettered capital flows give the US access to foreign investment and keep interest rates low. The adverse effects of globalisation according to the survey are: Millions of Americans have lost jobs due to imports or production shifts abroad. Most
find new jobs that pay less. Millions of others fear losing their jobs, especially at those companies operating under
competitive pressure. Workers face pay cut demands from employers, which often threaten to export jobs. Service and white collar jobs are increasingly vulnerable to operations moving offshore. U S employees can lose their comparative advantage when companies build advanced
factories in low-wage countries, making them as productive as those at home.
True, globalisation can benefit the developing countries in several ways. It is, however, apprehended that unregulated globalisation will cause serious problems for developing countries.
The almost universal acceptance of the market economy and the globalisation driven by private enterprise tend to aggravate most of the harmful effects traditionally attributed to neocolonialism.
The global dominance of industries by MNCs is on [he increase. Many countries are indiscriminate in liberalising foreign investment. Pepsi, Coke and L’junk foods” are allowed even in countries like China.
A number of countries allow high foreign stake even in industries where that is not really required. This could affect domestic enterprise of developing countries.
There has been a large number of cases of takeover of national firms by foreign firms. In some of these cases, the domestic firms are driven to a situation of having to hand over the majority or complete equity to the foreign partners of joint ventures because of the inability of the Indian partners to bring in additional capital or some other incapability.”
Replacement of traditional and indigenous products by modern products, resulting in the ruin of traditional crafts and industries and the livelihood of people in these sectors have also been happening in several countries.
There should also be benefits for employment from a liberal financial regime. Removing restrictions on capital flows should attract more FDI, creating more jobs for the poor by integrating them into international systems of production.”24
It is criticised that developed nations receive most of the FD1, A very small number of the developing countries, which are the relatively developed or large or fast growing in the developing world account for the lion’s share of the FDI flows to this category. What the critics do not appreciate is that, as foreign investment flows are based on economic rational, it is unrealistic to expect the pattern of flow to be different.
Another criticism is that the liberalisation increases the economic inequality. Even in China, the liberalisation has created many island of affluence. If inequality increases because of the worsening of the living conditions of the poor, it certainly is unjustifiable. But, if the increase in inequality is the result of improving the economic conditions of a section, while there is no economic deterioration of any section, or because of the disproportionate benefits, the question is whether the economic progress of some sections should be curbed so that there will not be a widening of the inequality.
The liberalisation may increase inequality. Further, several sectors and sections may not directly and immediately benefit from mere liberalisation. There may also be shocks and other adverse effects on the weaker sections. It is, therefore, necessary that there should be real socioeconomic reforms rather than mere liberalisation. Targeted poverty eradication programmes and social safety net are very important.
The fast growth and overall development resulting from liberalisation could have a major’ impact on poverty. Naisbitt points out that there were an estimated 200 to 270 million Chinese -living in absolute poverty in 1978 (the year in which the liberalisation began) and their number came down to 100 million by 1985.2 Foreign capital has significantly boosted investment and economic growth in China. China has leaped forward on the export front too. Foreign funded enterprises contribute a substantial chunk of the exports from China. Other countries which carry out proper reforms in real earnest should also” be expected to reap such gains in varying degrees. But-, half-hearted and confused measures and implementational problems may create more problems than they solve.
Although the MNCs, by the virtue of their size and resources, have certain advantages they may also have limitations or disadvantages in certain spheres or aspects of business. Small and medium firms often have some edge over the very large ones in respects of standardised products -or technologies like greater flexibility and adaptability, lower overheads, intimacy with the customers, etc. Lower costs is a great advantage which firms from developing countries enjoy. It may be noted that the major component of growth of several India pharmaceutical firms is the foreign market. They are relying mostly on bulk drugs and generics.
What is often ignored while discussing the impact of the product patent is that patented drugs account for only about 15 per cent of the India drug market. There are several more products which. would go off patent in the coming years which can also be taken up the India firms. The new patent regime should be expected help the Indian industry by prompting it to give added thrust to R&D and thereby enabling Indian firms also to develop patented products. Positive signs are already there on the horizon.
There are also many evidences of the better technology brought in by the MNCs inducing or provoking Indian firms to absorb “similar technology leading to their enhanced competitiveness and market expansion.
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In 1960 central America had 80% of its original forest area and today only 40% of these forest remain, in brazil has lost over 90% of it forest located along the Atlantic coast and the forests in developing countries have not been spared either where Nigeria has lost 80% of its forest area from the year 1990 to 2005. in the year 1990 to 2005 the world has lost over 3% of its total area that is covered by forests, however according to the 2007 FAO report the net loss of forest is estimated at 7.3 million hectares every year and this amounts to 20,000 hectares a day.
This shows that Over the years the area covered by forest has declined drastically due to deforestation, forest serve an important purpose in the welfare of the environment in that they are home for wild life, water shed management, source of timber and paper, source of fuel, biodiversity such as fruits and plant species and recreational purposes.
ecent past there has been an increased concern over the rate of deforestation and policy measures have been implemented to protect the remaining covered area. Human activity is one of the major factors that have contributed to this problem and because trees are renewable resources there is need to take action and improve the current situation.
Causes of deforestation:
Trees from the forests are used for economic purposes such the production of timber and paper, this increased demand for timber and paper has led to the increased deforestation all over the world. Human activity is one of the major cause of deforestation, in developing countries deforestation is undertaken in order to gain agricultural land, these activities are undertaken in order to provide land for the growing population because population growth in these countries is usually very high and therefore the ever increased demand for land.
In developed countries however deforestation takes place for the purpose of development, due to increased value of and also increased demand for land for commercial use the area covered by forests is cleared to give way to development.
Pests and diseases:
Due to increased occurrences of pests and diseases that destroy the forests there has also been a decline in the area covered by forests, some diseases affect large portions of forests and as a result forest land is lost and this leads to increased deforestation. When forests are affected by these diseases and pests the only option undertaken is to clear these forests and use them for commercial purposes such as building, airports, parks and other economic purposes.
Fire has also been a contributing factor in the reduction of forests covered areas, in the recent past there has been increased frequency in the occurrence of forest fires that have led to the diminishing of forests, forest fires are in most cases difficult to extinguish and control due to the unpredictable intensity and direction of wind and also lack of proper equipment to detect fires. Therefore fire is also considered as a contributing factor in deforestation problem.
The Greek fire in 2007 is one of an example of forest fires that have led to deforestation, this fire destroyed 2,700 kilometres squared of area covered by forest, this fire also destroyed buildings and also at the same time people were burnt to death by the blazes. Another case is the California forest fires in the year 2007 where over 2,000 square kilometres covered by forests were destroyed. This shows that forests fires are also a contributing factor in the problem of deforestation.
In some cases wind has also been a factor that has led to deforestation, wind will forse trees to bend and also break and as a result although this may be viewed as a minor factor in the long run wind contributes to deforestation.
Acid rain has also resulted to the loss of forests, acid rain is caused by the increase pollution by industries and human activity and due to soil degradation the area covered by forests have reduced and therefore acid rain has also contributed to the loss of trees in forests.
Forests in most cases are cleared for the purpose of expanding area for urban development; this has led to extensive logging and clearing of forest. As urban areas expand there is an increased need to clear forests to give way to development of buildings and other transport networks and as a result forest area has declined.
The construction of roads and railway lines and also airports have also resulted into the loss of forest area, as a result of the needed extension in transport networks most roads and railway lines pass through original forests and trees have to cleared to give way to development of these networks, as a result there has been deforestation.
Rise in population:
According to the Malthusian scenario of population growth, population growth is geometric in nature and as the population size increases there is an increased for resources such as land, as a result the population will clear forests in order to gain access to land for economic purposes.
Mining and exploration:
Mining and exploration have also contributed to this problem, when certain minerals such as metal or oil is discovered in area covered by forest man will clear these forest in order to extract these valuable resources and as a result forests area decreases as more and more minerals are discovered and there is need to clear trees.
Impact of deforestation:
Loss of biodiversity:
Forests have resulted into the loss of biodiversity, some tree and plant species are currently endangered and some are already extinct and this has been as a result of deforestation. As a result the world has lost its biodiversity including animals that have lost their habitat.
Forests are important as they provide watershed management, as a result of deforestation there has been an increase in the flow of ground water and as a result there have been increased occurrences of flash flooding in dams and electric power dams.
Global climatic changes:
Climatic changes are experienced due to the unforgiving nature of the environment, Global warming has been an issue that has been of recent concern and deforestation has contributed to the issue of global warming, for this reason therefore there should be improved forest management to extend the adverse effect of global warming.
Trees will act as water shed whereby areas covered by forest will hold more underground water, when logging takes place in these area the ground may not hold water and for this reason the area may experience more drier climates due to deforestation.
Increased erosion and land slides:
Due to the increased loss of vegetation cover land has become more susceptible to erosion through rain and also wind, the loss of vegetation cover and forests have also resulted into increased occurrences of land slides. An example of erosion caused by logging is the yellow river of China that turned yellow due to the increased sediment load of the river as a result of erosion.
Forests are important in the carbon cycle balance and the cutting down of trees will result into unbalanced carbon cycle in the word, as a result there will be an increased percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which results into global warming and other impacts.
Deforestation is also a major causes of the greenhouse effect, Trees remove carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and when these tree reduce then this will create an imbalance, the decay and the burning of trees will also lead to an increase in the level of carbon in the atmosphere and for this reason
Afforestation and reforestation:
Government have initiated policy measures aimed at planting trees in both areas that were covered by trees and those that were not earlier covered by trees, afforestation involves the planting of trees in area where forests did not exist while reforestation involves planting trees where forests have been destroyed. An example is where since 1990 the European union has paid farmers in form of grants for them to turn their farming land into forests, by 1997 over half a million hectares of land have been afforested and reforested. Also In the 1998 to 2000 period china completed reforestation and afforestation of over 1.1million hectares. Therefore the afforestation and reforestation policy measures by various authorities have resulted into a reduction in the effects of deforestation.
Ban on logging:
Bans on logging are also policy measures to reduce deforestation, this however acts as a way to stop further deforestation but does not solve the problem of deforestation because the world has already been faced with the problem, an example of such a ban is the 1998 china ban against commercial logging, this ban was lifted on more than 13 provinces that are along the yellow river.
Cost of reducing this problem:
Because timber harvesting is a major economic activity in many countries if a piece of and is used for production of timber and not for nay other use, trees are planted and then cut for timber production and trees are replanted or allowed to grow from natural seeding then we would be in apposition to find out the economic cost
In recent years the destination sectors in FDI have became more varied. FDI inflows have shifted from infrastructure, natural resources and export driven manufacturing to other areas such as retailing, tourism, construction and off shore services. A World Bank study showed that cumulative FDI inflows to the retail sector in the 20 largest developing countries amounted to US$ 45 billion in 1998-2002 (about 7 per cent of the total of these countries). The study showed that after liberalization; countries such as Brazil, Poland and Thailand have received significant FDI in retailing.
In spite of the recent developments in retailing and its immense contribution to the economy, retailing continues to be are the least evolved industries and the growth of organised retailing in India has been much slower as compared to rest of the world. Over a period of 10 years, the show of organised retailing in total retailing has grown from 10 per cent to 40 percent in Brazil and 20 percent in China, while in India it is only 2 per cent (between 1995-2005). One important reason for this is that retailing is one of the few sectors where foreign direct investment is not allowed. Within the country, there have been protests by trading associations and other stakeholders against allowing FDI in retailing. On the other hand, the growing market has attracted foreign investors and India has been portrayed as an important investment destination for the global retail chains. The present paper attempts to analyze the reason why foreign retailers are interested in India, the strategies they are adopting to enter India and there prospects in India
After the waves of globalisation, liberalisation and privatisation marketing scenario particularly retailing has changed radically. These changes have resulted in emergence of new environment for buyers’ behaviour and purchasing habits. The upper and upper middle strata of the society now prefers to purchase well established branded goods from standard showrooms and it has transformed the entire picture and perception not only in the metro cities but almost in all big cities of our country. It is worth mentioning that retailing in India has been hailed as one of the sun-rise sectors in the economy. According to A. T. Kearney, a well known International Management Consultant, “India is the second most attractive retail designation globally, among thirty emergent markets.” Till now unorganised retailing sector was dominating retail trade in India by constituting 98% of all retailing trade but now not only traditional Indian retailers but giant Indian retailers like Reliance has entered in the area and is planning to expand its activities in this sector in a big wag. Even world renowned retailing organisation like Wal-Mart has decided to enter in India via joint venture with Bharti and French retailer Carrefour is busy in chalking out strategy to enter the hyper market and supermarket retail format in India through Dubai based retail major Landmark group.