Posts Tagged ‘Economy’
GLOBALISATION OF WORLD ECONOMY
The world economy has been emerging as a global or transnational economy. A global or-transnational economy is one which transcends the national borders unhindered by artificial restrictions like Government restrictions on trade and factor movements. Globalisation is a process of development of the world into a single integrated economic unit. The Transnational economy is different from the international economy. The international economy is characterised by the existence of different national economies the economic relations between them being regulated by the national Governments. The transnational economy is a borderless world economy characterised by free flow of trade and factors of production across national borders.
Drucker in his New Realities observes that in the early or mid seventies — with OPEC and President Nixon’s floating of the dollar — the world economy changed from being international to transnational. According to Drucker, Che transnational economy is characterised by, inter alia, the following features
1. The transnational economy is shaped mainly by money flows rather than by trade in goods and services. These money flows have their own dynamics. The monetary and fiscal policies of sovereign Governments increasingly react to events in the international money and capital markets rather than, actively shape them.
2. In the transnational economy management has emerged as the decisive factor of production and the traditional factors of production, land and labour, have increasingly become secondary. Money and capital markets too have been increasingly becoming transnational and universally obtainable. Drucker, therefore, argues that it is management on which competitive position has to be based.
3. In the transnational economy the goal is market maximisation and not profit maximisation.
4. Trade, which increasingly follows investment, is becoming a function of investment.
5. The decision making power is shifting from the national state to the region (i.e., the regional blocs like the European Community, North American Free Trade Agreement, etc.)
6. There is a genuine — and almost autonomous — world economy of money, credit and investment flows. It is organised by information which no longer knows national boundaries.
7. Finally, there is a growing pervasiveness of the transnational corporations which see the entire world as a single market for production and marketing of goods and services.
There are, thus, many factors which tend to promote the transnatlonalisation of the world economy. The multilateral trade negotiations under the auspices of GATT/WTO have been liberalising trade and investment.
A growing proportion of the world output is traded internationally and the faster growth of trade, than the GDP, is bringing about world economic integration. This economic integration is reinforced by the massive cross-border capital flows. The progress of the regional blocs increasingly integrate the regional economies.
Department of Commerce
Periyar University, Salem-11
Intended to create a national recycling economy in Jiangxi demonstration area (Figure) – Metals International of renewable, environmental economic
HC Environmental Network: Mayor James Feng Shui Chuen Fung attended the forum and introduced the situation of urban development of circular economy.
Reporter held from 5 in Nanchang, the Ninth International Forum Metals Forum was informed Fengcheng points, with waste Material recycling Re-use a long history of Jiangxi Feng city, the role of traditional strengths, vigorously develop the circular economy, first in the province out of a development with local characteristics of circular economy and build economical and Environment Friendly society’s way. In addition, Harvest also prepared in the current cycle of more solid economic base, create a national recycling economy demonstration areas.
Circular economy industrial economic volume accounted for half of Fengcheng
Fengcheng known as “South of waste material distribution center,” said the early eighties of last century, the city will have thousands of farmers to recycle the used materials are sold to Zhejiang and Jiangsu province for a living. To put the processing of value-added chain of the most “fat” to retain the business, since 2002, Harvest began on the reuse of industrial waste materials planning integration, the establishment of waste materials on the one hand the professional market, and enhance radiation; other On the one hand the formation of capital market Source Agglomeration effects, through investment, launched the public funding, development and environmental protection in line with national policy requirements reuse of industrial waste materials. From the piles of refuse and broken, people “choose” out of the feather, plastic, recycled metal three major industries, storing up a seat Jinshanyinshan. According to Mayor James
Feng Shui Chuen introduced the development of circular economy is already a pilot city in Jiangxi province (county) Feng city, has now become the backbone of economic development in Jiangxi Province cycle, while also working for the inclusion of the experimental unit city to work hard. In 2006, Harvest The city government has drawn up a “Feng opinions on urban development of circular economy,” and specifically mentioned “the scientific outlook on development as guidance, to optimize utilization of waste materials and waste industry development model as the core, to clean, high quality, efficient, safe target, focus on improving the recovery rate of scrap and waste materials and utilization of waste materials and vigorously promote the clean utilization of waste, efforts to reduce environmental pollution.
Today, the city has plans to build an abundance of resources recycling industry base, Feng mining cycle economic zone, Food Industrial Park, He-Zhou waste plastic recycling processing area, the tug down processing zone, fine ceramics industry base 6 cell of circular economy, currently accounting for circular economy industrial half of the city’s total industrial economy.
Feng Wang Cheng Metal Products Co., the city was founded in 2004 by the National Ministry of Environmental Protection Approved the import of the seventh class of scrap metal (mainly aluminum to scrap) recycling aluminum company dismantling project. The company is located in the City Court, where Yang Feng Industrial Zone. In Fengcheng municipal government and relevant departments of the strong support the company achieved in 2007 Sell Income of 15,000 million yuan, 700 million taxpayers. In 2008 due to financial crisis, the company achieved sales of 8,000 million, more than 400 million taxpayers. “By 2011, company annual production capacity of 50,000 tons, the output value will reach 600 million yuan.” Company officials said.
Wang Feng Cheng Metal Products Co., Ltd. is a recycling of urban public resources to go and take the loop road to economic development, a microcosm of the current, Harvest has been planning the establishment of two circular economy industrial bases, namely, He-Zhou Feng urban waste materials recovery and Waste plastic Comprehensive utilization of industrial base, abundance of resources recycling of urban industrial base.
It is understood that HSBC City Hezhou waste recycling and comprehensive utilization of waste plastics industry base has become larger southern Jiangxi and even modern renewable resource recycling and processing industry, an important place. Planning area of 950 acres of base to recover waste plastics, waste rubber, scrap metal and processing. As of the end of 2008, the base has been stationed in various types of enterprises and individual business 230. Base of industrial output value in 2008 of 1.6 billion (declined by the financial crisis in 2007, up more than 20 million), profits and taxes reached 80 million yuan, for the rural surplus labor force of more than 3,000 people. Base has built up a daily processing 2,000 tons of waste water sewage treatment station, on the base’s wastewater treatment 100%. According to incomplete statistics, the base scale of the formation of 950 acres, may add settled enterprises (businesses) more than 300 (including: the main core processors 12), the annual recycling of metal, comprehensive utilization of waste plastics, rubber, 90,000 tons , added industrial output value, profit and tax were 20 billion, 100 million yuan, an average annual increase of 14% or more, about 4,000 new jobs.
Abundance in the construction of resources recycling industry base city the size of waste material than Hezhou comprehensive utilization of waste plastics recycling and larger industrial base, covering an area of 3,000 acres, dismantling, smelting, processing and management services four functional areas. Mainly use imported waste from the seventh class of substances, dismantling, smelting, processing, recycling of resources, reduce the original ore mining, to protect the environment. After the completion of a comprehensive base for the formation of one million tons of dismantling capacity, 70 million tons (of which: 400 thousand tons recycled copper, recycled 300,000 tons of aluminum) smelting capacity of 420,000 tons of deep processing capacity, the annual sales income of 8.467 billion Yuan, profit and tax 400 million, about 1 million job placement officers.
Intends to create national circular economy demonstration areas
However, in the development of circular economy in the city are not tasted the sweetness of abundance to meet the existing scale, the preparation of the two resources in the recycling of existing industrial base, based on category proposed to create state-level eco-industrial vein Industry Park (circular economy demonstration areas) concept. Fengcheng City, according to a researcher, assistant mayor thank Friends of the root describes, Harvest national eco-industrial park venous industry (circular economy demonstration areas) to the two existing resources recycling industry base as a whole and organically integrated, unified planning and supervision. Resource recycling industry base will be dismantled over the waste plastics, waste rubber recycling waste materials for Hezhou and comprehensive utilization of waste plastics processing enterprises within the industrial base for raw materials, and Hezhou waste recycling and comprehensive utilization of waste plastics recycling industry base of scrap non-ferrous metal resources recycling industry has taken deep processing base, base materials to achieve two complementary advantages, resource sharing, so that abundance into the city of circular economy of scale, network, group, circular track of development.
World Environment Day, which is commemorated each year on June 5th, is one of the most significant mode through which the United Nations stimulates the global awareness of the environment. It is by this way that the United Nations attract political attention and enhances action to shape a better global environment. Each year the World Environment Day is celebrated in recognition of unique theme. Norway was honored to host International World Environment Day 2007 celebrations in recognition of the theme — ‘Melting Ice – The Hot Topic’. Over a hundred nations across the globe celebrates the World Environment Day with highly relevant theme each year.
The slogan for World Environment Day 2008 is ‘Kick the Habit! Towards a Low Carbon Economy’. With an understanding of the fact that the change in climatic condition is gradually becoming one of the most defining issue of the age, UNEP is requesting the nations, companies and communities to put special focus on the greenhouse gas emissions and to put spare thought over how to reduce them. The World Environment Day 2008 is going to highlight resources and focuses on promoting low carbon economies with a view to shape a better and healthier future. Promoting a low carbon economy involves steps towards improved energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, forest conservation and eco-friendly consumption. The chief international celebration of the World Environment Day 2008 is going to be held in New Zealand.
The Heads of State, Prime Ministers and Ministers of Environment deliver statements and commit themselves to care for this only green planet of the universe. Serious pledges establish sound and non-transitory governmental policies related to environmental management and economic planning. bicycle parades, tree planting , recycling campaigns, clean-up campaigns, street rallies, school level essay and poster competitions etc. are organized all over the world on June 5th to celebrate the World Environment Day.
Here are some information on World Environment Day for the last ten years regarding where the WED celebration was held at and what were the respective themes each year:
Places of celebration:
World Environment Day 2007 – Tromsø, Norway
World Environment Day 2006 – Algiers, Algeria
World Environment Day 2005 – San Francisco, U.S.
World Environment Day 2004 – Barcelona, Spain
World Environment Day 2003 – Beirut, Lebanon
World Environment Day 2002 – Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China
World Environment Day 2001 – Torino, Italy and Havana, Cuba
World Environment Day 2000 – Adelaide, Australia
World Environment Day 1999 – Tokyo, Japan
World Environment Day 1998 – Moscow, Russian Federation
Themes of celebration:
World Environment Day 2007 – Melting Ice – a Hot Topic?
World Environment Day 2006 – Deserts and Desertification – Don’t Desert Drylands!
World Environment Day 2005 – Green Cities – Plan for the Planet!
World Environment Day 2004 – Wanted! Seas and Oceans – Dead or Alive?
World Environment Day 2003 – Water – Two Billion People are Dying for It!
World Environment Day 2002 – Give Earth a Chance
World Environment Day 2001 – Connect with the World Wide Web of Life
World Environment Day 2000 – The Environment Millennium – Time to Act
World Environment Day 1999 – Our Earth – Our Future – Just Save It!
World Environment Day 1998 – For Life on Earth – Save Our Seas
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Many people struggling through the tough economy are not going to be able to take advantage of the 2009-10 Energy Efficiency Tax Credit simply because they can’t afford new windows and doors, water heaters, or more insulation. However, there are a few things you can do around your home to air seal it to save money during the winter months and during the summer.
Because of the price and use of energy, architects and builders now design a home to be a “thermal envelope”. That is the sum total of the home’s insulation systems including walls, ceilings, foundation, floors, windows, and doors. These work more effectively with good, tight fits that seal out the weather and air. By having a tight seal on your home’s thermal envelope, the less energy you waste or lose by exchanging it too often with the air outside.
So, with this in mind, let’s start at ground level and work our way up to seal your house.
A moisture barrier (usually plastic sheeting) covers the earth beneath a structure to prevent moisture from infiltrating the structure from the ground. All-wooden structures last years longer if they are kept dry and out of contact with the ground. For a house, not only does it help prevent rot but it also helps keep the drier. Because moisture in the air holds heat, even during the most humid months, a moisture barrier will make your Texas home feel drier and cooler.
Most Texas homes are built on either a slab or have crawl spaces under them. Houses with slab foundations typically have concrete poured on top of a plastic moisture barrier. This limits the infiltration of moisture into the thermal envelope of the house. Homes with crawl spaces, meanwhile, feature a moisture barrier in their crawl spaces. Some older homes do not have one and these can be installed by the home owner very easily.
A moisture barrier is plastic sheeting, usually about 6-8 mils thick and is available at any hardware store, typically in sizes ranging from 25 × 25 feet to 100 × 100 feet. It also need not be one single piece of plastic. As long as the sheets overlap each other by about 6 inches or so, it will be effective.
To install, you will need to know the dimensions of your crawl space and buy enough plastic sheeting to cover the ground in that space. Simply cut the plastic sheeting to cover the earth from wall to wall, laying it flat. You can use either black or clear plastic, but I would use clear because black plastic would make your crawl space feel like a cramped version of Batman’s lair.
You should notice the difference within 24 hours. If your house feels too dry, simply fold back some of the plastic sheeting to expose the earth underneath. Continue adjusting until your home feels the most comfortable to you.
As mentioned, moisture barriers limit the infiltration of moisture into the thermal envelope of the house. The house feels drier: It will be easier to cool in the summer and less likely to develop mold or contribute to wood rot in the winter.
Mudsill and Rim Joists
The next place to check out is the mudsill. The mudsill is the board that is bolted flat on to the top of the foundation wall. An example of one is a 2×8 board bolted onto the final course of cement blocks. It provides a bed to attach the flooring joists and banding boards for the first floor of the house. Depending on how well it is installed, it can let in a lot of cold air and moisture.
Places to look for gaps is where the mudsill is fastened to the foundation. A common building practice now is to put down a plastic foam gasket over the foundation before attaching the pressure treated lumber that will be the mudsill. In older homes, either a paper-backed cellulose material was put down or nothing was used. To find gaps, get as close as possible to the mudsill from the inside and look for daylight shining through between the mudsill and the foundation wall and feel for a draft of cool air.
If your foundation is made of cement blocks, look for the vertical joints between the blocks. When these blocks are put into place, the mortar between the blocks often slumps leaving thin mortar or none at all. Over time as the house settles, holes can appear. While these might be small holes that let through tiny amounts of air, if your home has 10 or 20 of them, you’re letting in a lot of weather and insects. Seal every hole you find with silicon caulk or expanding foam.
Another place along the mudsill to look for is where the rim joists attach. The rim joist (sometimes called “banding joist”) is the piece of wood that closes off the end of the flooring joist or is the last floor joist underneath the exterior wall. The bottom edge is not necessarily an air-tight seal. In fact, I lived in one older house where there was a half-inch gap between the rim joist and mudsill. Now, while this seems small, the gap ran for the entire length of the house: 25 feet. It was the equivalent of leaving a 24 inch by 24 inch window open all the time. Some expandable foam quickly sealed this gap and there was a noticeable improvement in comfort and cost right away.
If you have double-hung wooden sash windows with storm windows that are drafty, there are several ways to make them more energy efficient.
Make sure the glazing on the glass panes of the sash windows is not cracked or crumbling. The glazing helps hold and seal the glass to the wooden window and thus blocks drafts and quiets rattling – especially from traffic. It also lessens the likelihood that the glass will break if a pet or a child presses against it. Glazing is something of a skilled art. That being said, it’s not that hard to do. Re-glazing a window yourself can save you $50 to $100 or more. All you need is glazing putty ($5), a putty knife ($2), some glaziers’ points ($2 for a box of 100) and some time.
First, remove any old, cracked, or crumbling glazing with a putty knife. Glazing putty dries to be very, very hard and will last decades. It can be loosened with a heat gun, but keep the gun moving or the heat will crack the glass.
When the old putty has been removed, remove all the old glaziers’ points. Now, lift out the pane and set it aside. Sand the channel where the pane fits on the wooden sash. Usually, I apply a thin bead of silicone caulk in this channel before replacing the glass. This helps to seat and seal the glass pane. This especially helps when working on multiple small panes (called “lights”) separated by thin or fragile wooden mullions (also called “muntins”). Next, insert new glaziers points. This is done by using the putty knife to press points into the wooden sash along the glass pane to keep it in place. Take your time so that you don’t break the glass.
Glazing putty can be purchased in either a can or a tube with a shaped tip that fits in a caulking gun. However, it does take some practice to get just the right angle and right amount of putty on the glass. When using the tube mix, keep the 45 degree angled tip steadily against the glass and lay a bead of putty the length of bottom of the pane. If you’re using the putty from the can, roll the putty into long snake (or rope) and place it along the edge of the pane and along the wood. Gently press it into position so that it forms a nice 45 degree angle with the putty knife. The putty is shaped this way so that water runs off the glass to the edge of the window sash instead of into the window pane channel where it can rot the wood.
The next thing to look for is if your windows close snugly. Both the top and bottom window have what is called a “meeting rail”. On the upper window, it is the bottom of the window and on the bottom window it is the top. These meeting rails are shaped so that they mesh together when they close. This helps seat and seal the window properly. Check to see if the bottom window runs firmly – but not tightly – along the window jamb as you close the window. If it’s too loose and wiggles back and forth, it probably won’t seat very tightly when it’s closed. You can use a putty knife to pry out the window jambs and then re-position them to improve how tightly the window will close. You might try adding felt or self-adhesive foam weather stripping. Also make sure you clean out any debris from the window to ensure the window will seat and seal snugly.
As metal storm windows age, the harder they seem to close. This usually happens because of dirt and corrosion. Make sure the window tracks are clean and free of dirt and debris so the window runs smoothly.
Outside, check that the storm window frame is held tightly in place against the wooden window frame. Screws that hold this frame in place might be loose and might need to be replaced or moved to a new spot. Most drafts from storms windows come from where the storm window frame meets the wooden window frame. Once you’re certain the storm window frame is secure, lay a bead of caulk into the seam where the metal storm window frame meets the wooden window frame. Typically, there are two slots cut into the bottom apron of the storm window frame. Do not seal these. These are weep holes that allow condensation to escape.
If you have modern, double glazed windows (windows with two panes of glass), one of the things to look out for is fogging between the panes. Double glazed windows are made by attaching a pane of glass with adhesive to either side of a half-inch wide aluminum frame either in a vacuum or a very dry environment. It is then a single unit and is installed into a standardized window frame. Fogging is a sign that the seal on the window unit has failed and water vapor has penetrated into the space between the panes. If the fogging is still present in summer, it’s a good guess that acids have also leeched in with the water vapor and have permanently etched the window glass. If the fogging disappears when the window warms, then it’s not too late to treat it. Examine the wood of the window for any discoloration from moisture. Look for peeling, flaking paint or soft, gray-colored wood. If you find some, sand it smooth and then seal it with an oil-based enamel or polyurethane. If the wood is very soft, you might try using an epoxy formulated to penetrate and preserve rotten wood. Be sure to mask the glass first with painter’s tape.
A builder installs a door or window with wedges called shims so that the window can float inside a rough opening in the framing. While this lets the door or window open and close freely as it expands and contracts during the year, it also means a lot of outside air can infiltrate your house by getting in around the window frame if it has not been insulated or if it has been damaged. During the summer, it usually isn’t a noticeable problem. During the winter, though, if you see moisture or mildew there could be a problem with the window frame.
Look outside for damage to the siding and window frame. Look for holes or wet, rotten wood, or even a loose piece of siding. It’s important to clean and seal problems like these quickly, especially if moisture has been getting inside your wall, because the damage will just worsen over time. Rotten or damaged siding can be replaced easily with new pieces from the hardware store. Rotten or damaged window sills should be completely removed and replaced and the inside of the wall inspected for mold, rot, and other damage. However, this is no small job and requires time and skills to complete. It might need the hand of a professional. For an immediate, short-term fix, clean out the rotten wood as best you can and fill the hole with fiberglass auto body putty. This will provide a hard, waterproof barrier against the weather. Be sure to contour and shape it so that it will not interfere with opening and closing the window.
If moisture or rain is getting into your window frame, check to see if any of your rain gutters run over head. Check to see if these are clogged. Also, consider installing drip edging along the top of your windows to help run water around and away from the windows and siding when it rains. After you’ve installed it, be sure to caulk it in place so moisture can’t penetrate behind it.
A lot of folks consider it hideous to put over your windows but it will keep the wind out: clear plastic sheeting. This is probably the easiest temporary energy fix owners of older homes use to keep cold, damp winter weather out. There are two approaches: Apply the clear plastic sheeting to the outside of the window by stapling it to the wood window frame and then nailing lathe over the stapled edge to secure the plastic. Or apply the plastic sheeting to double-sided tape on the inside of the window frame (usually available in kits from the home center). To be sure, neither is an attractive solution. However, if you have an older home with double-hung windows in poor condition, this short-term fix does a lot for only $10 and about 15 minutes of work. In fact, even if your windows close snugly, it might not be a bad idea for a north-facing window that doesn’t have much of a view.
Energy Efficient Window Treatments: “It’s Curtains for You!”
Curtains not only add style, color, and privacy to a room, they also act as an insulating blanket for one of the most thermally conductive parts of the house: the windows. Curtains are even more effective at sealing off a window when they have thermal backing. Thermal backing is usually foam because foam permits water vapor to move through the fabric rather than condensing on the cold side toward the window and causing moisture problems. An additional benefit to thermal curtains is that they help deaden noise from outside that is normally transmitted into the room by the window glass. In the summer, the curtains also block hot sun.
Thermal curtains can be made even more efficient by adding a valance with a top. Usually, window valances conceal the curtain hardware such as the rods and brackets. However, if the valance has a top cover, warm air that would normally circulate down between the cool glass and the back of the curtain is blocked. Valances can be made with plywood and then stained, painted, or covered in fabric.
Another option is a window quilt. These are blanket-like shade that roll down to cover the window. Some are held tightly in place by magnetic strips attached to both the quilt and the window frame.
Finally, one last accessory for the double hung window is the Window Worm. This is a fabric tube about 2 1/2 to 3 inches in diameter and is as long as a window is wide. It is stuffed with quilting foam or cloth scraps and laid along where the top and bottom window sashes meet to help keep out drafts. Longer ones weighted with sand can also be made and placed across the foot of doors.