Posts Tagged ‘Nuclear Power Plants’
Sustainable Development in the words of Brundtland report is “the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations
To meet their own needs “.
In this context nuclear energy as a future energy source has occupied centre stage of
India’s concern. The characteristics of nuclear energy, it’s economic, environmental
and social impact and its link to sustainable development have come under the scanner of economic and political debate in the recent times.
This paper entitled “Sustainable Development and Energy Security” attempts to explore the prospects of adopting nuclear energy as a future energy source to meet the India’s
growing energy needs. Nuclear energy, though requires large capital investment in form of nuclear power plants, is seen as an alternative to fossil fuels. Use of nuclear energy not only meets the growing energy demands, but also minimizes the environment and social burdens.
Nuclear energy does not have environmental effects on global warming, green house effect, climate change and pollution. Hence the central goal of sustainable development i.e.maintainence and development of natural, human and social assets will have been met by use of nuclear energy.
This paper analyses the following aspects:
Various forms and sources of energy.
The role of energy in economic development.
The problems of developing countries vis-à-vis energy security.
Nuclear power and its importance in the light of power shortage in India in the context of sustainable development.
. Keywords: sustainable development, energy security, nuclear energy,
1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENERGY SECURITY
India’s energy resources are mostly available in convenient form. India has a
Significant reserves of coal, its electricity generation is also significant
Today more than 70% of power generation is through burning of coal.
We have 221 billion tones of coal reserves .India has a large hydro potential and only a part of this potential has been exploited .as per department of atomic energy of India ,India as also good uranium deposits supporting growth of “Nuclear Energy”. India is growing giant facing the critical challenge of meeting a rapidly increasing demand for energy .
India ranks 6th in the world in terms of energy demand and our economy is projected to grow 7% to 8% in next two decades .the international energy agency projects indias dependence on oil imports will be more at 91.6% by the year 2020 and India is relatively poor in the oil and gas resources . Even though there are several problems associated with energy in India from 1951 to 2005, it has produced coal 12 times greater then what was available in 1951 crude oil production increased 110 times. And the electricity installed capacity had a growth by over 68 times.
India has to meet two big challenges for a sustainable development .firstly it should meet the increasing demand for energy resources in the country .secondly it should avoid all environmental hazards and its should ensure an energy security by conservation of energy so that the future generation can also meet their wants for energy resources with available stock .this can lead to long term economic development which indicates the “Sustainable Economic Development” on which our attention is much more needed.
The concept of sustainable development was elaborated in the late 1980.
The tern sustainable development was brought into common use by the world commission on Environment and Development in its seminar report called
“Our common Future”. Brundtland Commission defines sustainable development as “Development that needs the needs of the present generation without comprising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs.
We can understand that use of the concept “Needs” in the definition is linked with the distribution of resources through three components of man made capitals, human capital and natural capital & it aims to achieve sustainable development through integration of three dimensions in a balanced way.
According to Professor Barthwal of ‘Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur’ has highlighted some important indicators of sustainable development there are as follows:
1) GDP growth rate.
2) Population Stability.
3) Human Resources Development Index.
4) Clean Air index.
5) Energy intensity.
6) Renewable energy proportion.
7) Material intensity.
8) Water use.
9) Soil degradation.
10) Forest coverage.
11) Re-cycling proportions.
12) Transport intensity.
These indicators show the changing trends of an economy towards Sustainable Development. Let us discuss this concept from the point of view
Of Energy Security and adopting Nuclear Energy as a future Energy Source which is the latest Debate in our country.
2) FORMS OF ENERGY
Energy has several forms which is useful to all human beings:
Mechanical Energy: Like kinetic and potential position against resistance.
Heat Energy: Can cause gases to expand, can melt the metals and convert water into steam.
Radiant Energy: Include light, radio, X-Rays, Laser etc.
Electro-magnetic Energy: Flow of electrons producing an electric current.
Chemical Energy: Stored in molecules of Food or in fossil fuels such as coal and oil.
Nuclear Energy: The force that combines the atomic nucleus together it is obtained through Fusion and Fission.
These energy are inter-convertible but it incurs a economical expenses which may not be profitable also Ex: Electrical Energy into light or heat Energy.
3) SOURCES OF ENERGY
Energy Sources refers to the sources from which energy is obtained to provide heat, light and power.
Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy sources:
Non-Renewable Energy sources are those which are lost in one operation the called depletable or exhaustible sources of energy their availability s always fixed and they are always at a declining stage Ex: Fossil fuel.
Renewable or In exhaustible energy sources are those which are perennial in nature they are regarded as flows rather than as stocks their total supply cannot be more than the available flow and the flow is perennial.
Commercial and Non-Commercial Energy Sources:
Commercial Energy Sources we include all those sources which are supplied through formal and organized Industries and marketing channels.Ex: Coal, Petroleum, natural gas which do not result in production, distribution and consumption or strictly passed through exchange Ex: fire wood, agriculture straw and animal waste etc.
Conventional and Non-conventional Energy Sources:
All those sources which the mankind is used to using are called Conventional Sources which those which are in their sources which those which are in their introductory stage or which can be used in future are called additional, alternative, or Non-Conventional Energy Sources.
Commercial sources of Energy play a vital role in developing country like India for Economic Growth and later in development.
4) TRENDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL ENERGY (1950-51 TO 2004-05)
Energy is the a vital resource for the economic development the production of commercial energy has increased steadily after introduction of economic planning and energy sector reforms in
“New Economic Policy” in 19191.from 1951 and 2005 coal
Production has increased by nearly 12 times, crude oil production by
110 times and electricity [installed capacity] by over 68 times.
Growth of Commercial Energy -1951 to 2004-2005.
Coal [in tones]
Oil crude [m.tonnes]
Electricity installed capacity [mw]
Generation [billion kwh]
Source: Economic survey 2005-06 .
Now let us see the consumption trends of commercial energy:
Consumption Trends of Commercial Energy.
Sectoral Trends In Commercial Energy Consumption
House hold sector
Percentage Share of Different Fuels in Commercial Energy Consumption.
Oil and gas
a) The transport sector was the largest consumer of commercial energy but in later stages there is a fall in total energy